Gasification is a process that converts biomass (organic-only waste materials) into a gaseous mixture called syngas or synthetic gas. This is achieved by mixing the biomass with oxygen and/or steam and heat (800°C+), without it combusting. Gasification technologies are capable of converting 70–80% of the carbon to syngas.
The gasifier vessel is the central piece of a gasification system. There are five types of gasifiers that vary in the type of feedstock used, the amount of oxygen and heat used, and the direction of the airflow within the gasifier:
- Entrained flow gasifiers
- Fluidized bed gasifiers
- Circulating fluidized bed gasifiers
- Updraft gasifiers
- Downdraft gasifiers
After the impurities like mercury, sulphur, and other particulates are cleaned out, syngas can be used to create a variety of finished products, including transportation fuels, chemicals, hydrogen, and fertilizers. It can also be combusted to generate electricity1.